The J.D. Power Canadian Vehicle Dependability Study (VDS)SM provides manufacturers and suppliers with in-depth diagnostic information on vehicle dependability and quality after 1-3 years of ownership. The study uses problems per 100 vehicles (PP100), often referred to as “things gone wrong,” as a unit of measurement of owner-reported problems. Overall, more than 175 problems are evaluated in two categories: defect/malfunction and design-related problems. Make and model PP100 scores are based on all problem types.